.RU

To the History of Construction - Учебное пособие для студентов 1 курса специальности «Промышленное и гражданское строительство»


^ To the History of Construction
With the introduction of the railways and steam machinery, transportation and manufacturing costs were considerably reduced and concrete came to be more widely used, but it was still very much a neglected material. Therefore, good concrete was scarce and a great deal of poor concrete was used.

The big break-through was the discovery of Portland cement by Joseph Aspdin in 1824, a worker in an English town.

When he was working an idea came to him as to how to make his work better. He started his experiments. After some time he obtained a powder. When it was mixed with water and allowed to stand it “sets” forming a hard substance. This substance was so much like the building stone from Portland that the powder was named Portland cement. As years passed different materials were found in many countries from which Portland cement could be made.

Portland cement was first used on a large scale in the construction of the Thames tunnel in 1828.

As early as 1830 the first idea of reinforced concrete was mentioned in a publication, which suggested that a lattice of iron rods be embedded in concrete to from a roof.

Patents were taken out for all sorts of systems in all countries. The development of reinforced concrete really got under way in the 1850’s and 60’s.

^ Lambort, a French contractor, built a concrete boat for the Paris International Exhibition of 1855, with 2 inches sides reinforced with a skeleton of iron rods.

W. Wilkinson, who patented a method of constructing a concrete floor in 1854, is considered by many to be the inventor of reinforced concrete as well.

But many people say that a Frenchman, J. Monier, who took out apatent in 1867 for the construction of plant tubs, tanks, etc., made of concrete reinforced with a mesh of rods or wires, should be credited with the invention. Certainly Monier did a great deal to develop the use of reinforced concrete and his name came to be so closely linked with reinforced concrete that reinforced concrete was known as the Monier System.

Wilkinson, however, certainly appears to have been the first. His patent covered for concrete floor slabs reinforced with a network of flat iron rods placed on edge. One of his main claims was the good fire resistance of the floor. He appears to have understood the principles of reinforced concrete, for he stated that the reinforcement was to be placed in the concrete to take the tension.

A number of buildings were erected, using Wilkinson’s system. He also described method for the construction of pipes, reservoirs, and walls of concrete reinforced with metal sheets, bars and chains.

Freyssinet is known for his work in prestressed concrete for which he had his first ideas before First World War. With the improved materials and the new knowledge available, Freyssinet realized the advantage to be obtained from prestressing, and he used his system in prestressed works.

From now on structures became bigger, better and more exciting, and concrete steadily strengthened its position as a building material. Reinforced concrete was recognized as the best material for all types of structures.

The post-war era has given the biggest boost to concrete, both reinforced and prestressed. After the war steel was short in Europe and many architects had to use either reinforced or prestressed concrete in their structures in order to economize in steel.

Architects were perhaps a little surprised to discover that in many cases reinforced concrete structures, apart from using the minimum of steel, where also cheaper than other forms of construction, and could be erected as quickly. They also discovered that they had more freedom for planning than they had ever before, and a larger number of different solutions to each structural problem were available.

Beams could be eliminated, floor spans could be increased, and shells were available for roofing large areas.

Another big factor, which encouraged the use of concrete, was the introduction of fire regulations, which recognized the superiority of concrete over other structural materials in its fire resistance properties.


^ 2. Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1) a neglected material; 6) a number of buildings;

2) the building stone; 7) prestressed concrete;

3) on a large scale; 8) the post-war era;

4) reinforced concrete; 9) the biggest boost;

5) a lattice of iron rods; 10) to economize in steel.


^ 3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1) паровое оборудование; 6) улучшенный материал;

2) большое достижение; 7) усилить позиции;

3) улучшить работу; 8) во многих случаях;

4) твердый материал; 9) формы строительства;

5) арматурная сетка; 10) использование бетона.


^ 4. Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык.

1) introduce; 6) construct;

2) machine; 7) develop;

3) wide; 8) invent;

4) discover; 9) close;

5) differ; 10) resist.


5. Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов (общий, альтернативный, разделительный, специальный: а) к подлежащему, б) к второстепенному члену предложения).


6. Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: числительные, времена групп Continuous и Perfect активного и пассивного залога; согласование времен; функции глаголов to be, to have; усилительные конструкции; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные:

  1. When he was working an idea came to him as to how to make his work better.

  2. After some time he obtained a powder.

  3. Portland cement was first used on a large scale in the construction of the Thames tunnel in 1828.

  4. The post-war era has given the biggest boost to concrete, both reinforced and prestressed.

  5. They also discovered that they had more freedom for planning than they had ever before, and a larger number of different solutions to each structural problem were available.


^ 7. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

  1. What big break-through was made by Joseph Aspdin?

  2. Where was Portland cement first used?

  3. When did the development of reinforced concrete get under way?

  4. Who is considered to be the inventor of reinforced concrete?

  5. What is Freyssinet is known for?

  6. Why was reinforced concrete recognized as the best material for all types of structures?

  7. Why did architects have to use concrete after the war?


^ 8. Составьте аннотацию к тексту (2-3 предложения).

9. Составьте реферат текста (10-15 предложений).

10. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.


ВАРИАНТ 3


1. Прочитайте и переведите текст:
^ Roman Architecture
Modern knowledge of Roman architecture derives primary from extant remains scattered throughout the area of the empire. Some are well preserved, and others are known only in fragments and by theoretical restoration. Another source of information is a vast store of records. Especially important is a book on architecture by the architect Vitruvius. His “De Architectura” (c. 27 BC) is the only treatise survived from ancient times. It consists of ten books and covers almost every aspect on architecture.

Pervasive Roman predilection was for spatial composition – the organization of lines, surfaces, masses, and volumes in space. In this the Romans differed from their predecessors in the ancient Mediterranean world.

In Roman architecture there were three types of houses: the domus, the insula, and the villa.

The domus, or town house, consisted of suites of rooms grouped around a central hall, or atrium, to which were often added further suites at the rear, grouped around a colonnaded court, or peristyle. The atrium, a rectangular room with an opening in the roof to the sky, and its adjoining rooms were peculiarly Roman elements; the peristyle was Greek or Middle Eastern. There were few windows on the street, light being obtained from the atrium or peristyle.

In Rome the chief examples of domus are the House of Vestals in the Forum in Rome and that of Livia on the Palatine Hill.

Great blocks of flats or tenements were called insulae. Excavation at Ostia, Italy, have revealed the design of these blocks. Planed on three or four floors with strict regard to economy of space, they depended on light from the exterior as well as from central court. Independent apartments had separate entrances with direct access to the street.

The Latin word “villa” pertained to an estate, complete with house, grounds, and subsidiary buildings.

Hadrian’s Villa at Tivoli, began about AD 123, was a sumptuous residence with parks and gardens on a large scale. The unevenness of the site necessitated large terraces and flights of steps. There are remains of great brick and concrete structures. All the buildings are Roman in style and methods of construction, though with Greek names.

The Romans were great builders and engineers famous for their factories, roads, aqueducts and bridges, grand thermae and amphitheatres, theatres, and temples.

The greatest surviving circular temple of antiquity, and in many respects the most important Roman building, is the Pantheon in Rome. It consists of rotunda about 142 feet in diameter surrounded by concrete walls 20 feet thick, in which are alternate circular and rectangular niches. Light is admitted through a central opening, or oculus, about 28 feet across, at the crown of the dome. In front is a porch with an inscription commemorating an earlier building of Marcus Agrippa (12 BC – AD14) but built with the existing rotunda (AD 120 – 124) under the emperor Hadrian. The rotunda and dome are among the finest examples of Roman concrete work. The interior was lined with precious marbles, the coffers (decorative recessed panels) of the dome itself once was covered externally with bronze plates.

The largest and most important amphitheatre of Rome was the Colosseum, built by the emperors Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian in about AD 70/75 – 82. Covering six acres (2.4 hectares), it had seating for about 50,000 spectators, and its 80 entrances were so arranged that the building could be cleared quickly. The whole is built of concrete, the exterior faced with travertine and the interior with precious marbles.

Other important amphitheatres are those at Verona, Italy; Pula, Yugoslavia; and Arles, France.

Imperial thermae were more than baths. They were immense establishments of great magnificence, with facilities for every gymnastic exercise and halls in which philosophers, poets, rhetoricians, and those who wished to hear them gathered.

The best preserved are the Baths of Caracalla (begun AD 217), which covered an area about 1,000 feet square, and those Diocletian (AD 298-306), with accommodation for 3,200 bathers.


^ 2. Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1) theoretical restoration; 6) subsidiary buildings;

2) rectangular room; 7) sumptuous residence;

3) on a large scale; 8) precious marbles;

4) opening in the roof; 9) immense establishments;

5) blocks of flats; 10) great magnificence.


^ 3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1) городской дом; 6) методы строительства;

2) со строгим учетом; 7) бетонные стены;

3) экономия пространства; 8) центральное отверстие;

4) отдельный вход; 9) источник информации;

5) доступ на улицу; 10) прямоугольные ниши.


^ 4. Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык.

1) restore; 6) build;

2) inform; 7) open;

3) organize; 8) decorate;

4) architect; 9) quick;

5) construct; 10) establish.


5. Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов (общий, альтернативный, разделительный, специальный: а) к подлежащему, б) к второстепенному члену предложения).


6. Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: числительные, времена групп Continuous и Perfect активного и пассивного залога; согласование времен; функции глаголов to be, to have; усилительные конструкции; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные:

  1. Some are well preserved, and others are known only in fragments and by theoretical restoration.

  2. Excavation at Ostia, Italy, have revealed the design of these blocks.

  3. Independent apartments had separate entrances with direct access to the street.

  4. It consists of rotunda about 142 feet in diameter surrounded by concrete walls 20 feet thick, in which are alternate circular and rectangular niches.

  5. The rotunda and dome are among the finest examples of Roman concrete work.


^ 7. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1. What architectural forms did the Romans prefer?

2. What did the domus consist of?

3. What was the atrium?

4. What was the insulae?

5. Why are the Romans called the great builders and engineers?

6. What did the Pantheon look like?

7. What did the Colosseum look like?


^ 8. Составьте аннотацию к тексту (2-3 предложения).

9. Составьте реферат текста (10-15 предложений).

10. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.


ВАРИАНТ 4


1. Прочитайте и переведите текст:

uchebnie-izdaniya-po-anglijskomu-yaziku-v-bibliotekah-g-kemerovo.html
uchebnie-materiali-po-razvitiyu-professionalnoj-rechi-dlya-studentov-inostrancev-podgotovitelnogo-otdeleniya.html
uchebnie-materiali-razmeshennie-na-uchebnom-servere-gruppa-specialnostej-2200.html
uchebnie-moduli-uchebno-metodicheskij-kompleks-uchebnoj-disciplini-kommunikacionnie-tehnologii-federalnogo-komponenta.html
uchebnie-plani-9-h-klassov-fbup-2004-poyasnitelnaya-zapiska-k-uchebnim-planam-mou-gimnazii-32-g-kaliningrada.html
uchebnie-plani-obrazovatelnij-standart-poslevuzovskoj-professionalnoj-podgotovki-specialistov-specialnost.html
  • obrazovanie.bystrickaya.ru/poyasnitelnaya-zapiska-rabochaya-programma-po-vseobshej-istorii-sostavlena-na-osnove-primernoj-programmi-osnovnogo-obshego-obrazovaniya-po-vseobshej-istorii-i-avtorskoj-programmi-po-vseobshej-istorii.html
  • literature.bystrickaya.ru/e-f-kuznecova-mifi-v-iskusstve-starom-i-novom.html
  • grade.bystrickaya.ru/obrazovatelnaya-programma-gosudarstvennaya-molodezhnaya-politika-uchebno-metodicheskoe-posobie-kazan-2010-bbk-66-75-o-18.html
  • testyi.bystrickaya.ru/a-n-leontev-izbrannie-psihologicheskie-proizvedeniya-stranica-25.html
  • letter.bystrickaya.ru/metodichn-rekomendac-ta-ndivdualn-zavdannya-dlya-samostjno-roboti-studentv-z-disciplni-dosldzhennya-operacj-dlya-studentv-2-kursu.html
  • laboratornaya.bystrickaya.ru/rabochaya-programma-uchebnoj-disciplini-arhitektura-kompyutera-dlya-napravleniya-podgotovki-050100-62-pedagogicheskoe-obrazovanie.html
  • lektsiya.bystrickaya.ru/posleslovie-vmesto-predisloviya.html
  • urok.bystrickaya.ru/programm-po-predmetam-uchebnogo-plana-realizuemogo-municipalnim-obsheobrazovatelnim-uchrezhdeniem-srednej-obsheobrazovatelnoj-shkoloj-3-v-2009-2010-uchebnom-godu.html
  • assessments.bystrickaya.ru/biologiya-i-tehnologiya-vozdelivaniya-soi-rabochaya-programma-povisheniya-kvalifikacii-tehnologiya-proizvodstva-i.html
  • grade.bystrickaya.ru/obrazovatelnaya-oblast-filologiya-kursa.html
  • testyi.bystrickaya.ru/analiticheskij-doklad-sovetu-glav-pravitelstv-sng-o-tekushem-sostoyanii-problemah-i-pervoocherednih-zadachah-obespecheniya-informacionnoj-bezopasnosti-sng.html
  • reading.bystrickaya.ru/materialov-iz-opita-raboti.html
  • nauka.bystrickaya.ru/valerij-gaevskij-stranica-3.html
  • universitet.bystrickaya.ru/time-r-t-41-gipnoz-roberta-time-per-s-angl-l-m-pticinoj-stranica-33.html
  • holiday.bystrickaya.ru/metodicheskoe-posobie-dlya-studentov-zaochnikov-specialnosti-080114-po-predmetu-osnovi-standartizacii-metrologii-i-sertifikacii.html
  • klass.bystrickaya.ru/52-raschet-sebestoimosti-izgotovleniya-detali-shorina-e-d-razrabotat-tehnologicheskij-process-uprochneniya-kulachka.html
  • paragraf.bystrickaya.ru/zadanie-vipolnite-testi-ukazhite-pravilnij-variant-proizneseniya-slova.html
  • uchitel.bystrickaya.ru/programmi-disciplin-podgotovki-magistra-filologii-po-napravleniyu-031001-62-filologiya-specializacii-teoriya-yazika-chast-i-izdatelstvo-altajskogo-gosudarstvennogo-universiteta-barnaul-2008.html
  • thescience.bystrickaya.ru/istoricheskij-roman-iz-vremen-hmednishivgi-stranica-8.html
  • thescience.bystrickaya.ru/i-o-onal-novosibirskij-gosudarstvennij-tehnicheskij-universitet-rossiya.html
  • universitet.bystrickaya.ru/uchebnij-kurs-organizaciya-i-upravlenie-predpriyatiem-v-sfere-fitnesa-krasoti-i-zdorovya-naznachenie-kursa.html
  • write.bystrickaya.ru/glava-vosmaya-b-liderstva-v-pererive-ko-mne-podoshel-odin-iz-slushatelej-po-imeni-bob.html
  • portfolio.bystrickaya.ru/osnovnoj-kompleks-meropriyatij-po-sovershenstvovaniyu-vneshneekonomicheskoj-deyatelnosti-v-oblasti-avtomobilnogo-transporta-67-logisticheskie-principi-sovershenstvovaniya-organizacii.html
  • paragraf.bystrickaya.ru/zarubezhnie-ims-shirokogo-primeneniya-chernisheva-stranica-14.html
  • ekzamen.bystrickaya.ru/shturm-vershini-gosudarstvennoe-izdatelstvo-fizkultura-i-sport-moskva-1959.html
  • knowledge.bystrickaya.ru/obem-i-harakteristika-postavlyaemogo-tovara.html
  • occupation.bystrickaya.ru/obilistar-astana-zhne-almati-alalari-bojinsha-memlekettk-krster-departamentter.html
  • universitet.bystrickaya.ru/tematicheskij-plan-seminarskih-zanyatij-uchebno-metodicheskij-kompleks-dlya-studentov-yuridicheskogo-kolledzha-specialnost.html
  • predmet.bystrickaya.ru/shevcov-a-a-samopoznanie-i-subektivnaya-psihologiya.html
  • nauka.bystrickaya.ru/uchebno-metodicheskij-kompleks-disciplini-sd-f-06-notariat-kod-i-nazvanie-disciplini-po-uchebnomu-planu-specialnosti.html
  • uchenik.bystrickaya.ru/ekonomicheskoe-obrazovanie-shkolnikov.html
  • otsenki.bystrickaya.ru/referat-po-psihologii-psihologicheskie-faktori-otchuzhdeniya-v-podrostkovom-vozraste.html
  • predmet.bystrickaya.ru/sabati-tairibi-zhspbek-ajmauitovti-nsh-gmes-sabati-masati.html
  • uchenik.bystrickaya.ru/kratkij-kurs-istorii-rossii.html
  • doklad.bystrickaya.ru/uchebno-metodicheskij-kompleks-po-discipline-marketing-specialnost-080116-matematicheskie-metodi-v-ekonomike.html
  • © bystrickaya.ru
    Мобильный рефератник - для мобильных людей.